Indeed, the French novel, its accepted immorality reinforced through symbolic yellow covers, dismissed traditional ‘moeurs’(established manners and morals) in favour of realistic representation. As this literature evolved, especially with narratives of women violating the Christian codes of marriage (Madame Bovary anticipated Zola’s 1868 Thérèse Raquin), the heroine had outdated its eighteenth-century characterisation. Realists, like Flaubert, presented marriage as the source of female oppression and the incentive for the rise of the New Woman. As George Becker observes, ‘as the whole of human behaviour and experience…was examined and portrayed with increasing exactness, realistic writers could not escape making statements about man and (society)…which were in violent opposition to those traditionally accepted’. Even with Enlightenment promotion of individual rights, marriage held women as property. Thus, Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, although acquitted, was accused of abrogating the codes of marriage and challenging traditional nineteenth-century moral values.Similarly, nineteenth-century dramas challenged the accepted moral doctrine of contemporary society. Historically, in Scandinavia throughout the 1880s, Ibsen’s plays so shocked their audience on moral grounds that even to discuss them in polite society was a violation of social propriety. Ibsen’s early plays were so controversial that he was forced to leave Norway for Germany, and in 1880 actress Hedwig Niemann-Raabe refused to act the last scene of A Doll’s House after having critically objected to Ibsen’s female lead abandoning her children. Additionally, when Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler was performed in London in 1891, Ibsen-phobiac (a term used by William Archer) Clement Scott criticised actress Elizabeth Robins for having accepted the part, noting that she had glorified crime and ennobled an immoral woman.